contact
Test Drive Blog
twitter
rss feed
blog entries
log in

Learning English text in narrative, news item, descriptive, spoof, hortatory, review, and other types with generic structure and language features

A Hortatory exposition is a type of spoken or written text that is intended to explain the listeners or readers that something should or should not happen or be done. To strengthen the explanation, the speaker or writer needs some arguments as the fundamental reasons of the given idea. In other words, this kind of text can be called as argumentation. Hortatory exposition text can be found in scientific books, journals, magazines, newspaper articles, academic speech or lectures, research report etc. Hortatory expositions are popular among science, academic community and educated people. The generic structure of Hortatory exposition usually has three components: (1) Thesis, (2) Arguments and (3) Recommendation.

A.Generic Structure of Hortatory Exposition

1. Thesis : Statement or announcement of issue concern
2. Arguments : Reasons for concern that will lead to recommendation
3. Recommendation : Statement of what should or should not happen or be done based on the given arguments

B.Generic Features of Hortatory Exposition

1.A Hortatory exposition focuses on generic human and non human participants, except for speaker or writer referring to self.
2.It uses mental processes. It is used to state what the writer or speaker thinks or feels about something. For example: realize, feel etc.
3.It often needs material processes. It is used to state what happens, e.g. ….has polluted… etc.
4.It usually uses Simple Present Tense and Present Perfect Tense.
5.Enumeration is sometimes necessary to show the list of given arguments: Firstly, secondly …, Finally, etc.


Now read this text of Hortatory Exposition!

A Campaign of the Importance of Reading

Thesis:

Reading habit is poor among Indonesians because most people haven’t realized the importance of reading

Argument 1

Reading is important to transform knowledge and technology. By reading, one knows the world. He or she will understand what he doesn’t see by himself or herself. The lines of the paragraphs in an article contain pieces of knowledge. The knowledge is needed to improve the quality of human’s life. Technology transformation from other country can only be done by reading a lot various sources of literature. Valuable books in libraries and bookstores mean nothing if they are not read.

Argument 2

Realizing the importance of reading will make someone motivated to read. When we know that something is very important because it can give us valuable information, we will try to get or do the thing. For example, a businessman who always follows latest information or news, will know what to do in his/ her business. He will make a good decision to make a transaction. Most people in all developed countries have realized the importance or reading and they have good reading habits. In bus and train stations, vehicles, waiting rooms, parks, people like reading. They enjoy reading which gives them valuable knowledge and inspiration.

Argument 3

A good understanding toward the importance of reading can be achieved by well organized and effective campaign. To plant an understanding in a generation’s minds is not an easy job. It needs a hard work from all components of the nation, especially the government. A serious campaign which is organized by the central and local government can help common people wake up and stand to face the real competition. The campaign can be done through various kinds of mass media such as TV, radio, booklets, bulletins, newspapers, magazines. It can also be conducted by teachers, parents and all people who care.

Recommendation

Therefore, a nation-wide effective campaign of the importance of reading by all components of the nation should be done, facilitated by the government, to face the tighter competition. The world has forced globalization. Those people with little knowledge will be left behind. To speed up the better change in this country, a good reading habit is really important.
Written by Cahyono KD



Read this text of Hortatory exposition!

Corruption
Thesis
(Announcement of issue concern)

Do you know what the meaning of corruption is? What is the relation between money and corruption? Well, corruption is common everywhere in the world, even in the United States. It’s just a matter of intensity. However, it is quite shocking when one reliable survey claims Jakarta as the most corrupt place in Indonesia.

Argument 1

The survey has made me sad, actually, because I stay and earn a living here in the capital. As most people know, Tanjung Priok port smuggling is not a new thing at all. Entrepreneurs who want to minimize their tax payments tend to do such a thing more often. They even bribe the officials.

Argument 2

Well, I think the measures taken so far to overcome the problem by punishing the corruptors is still not far enough. We have to prevent the younger generations from getting a bad mentality caused by corruption.

Recommendation

I believe we should start at the earliest stages in school and I think everyone should be involved in the effort to eradicate corruption. We must not make any distinction.
Adapted from: The Jakarta Post, February 2005


To make it clear, please remember the concept of Hortatory exposition below:

HORTATORY EXPOSITION

Purpose : to persuade the readers or listeners that something should or should not be the case.

Text Organization
A thesis
Arguments
Recommendation

Language Features:
•The use of emotive words (e.g. worried, alarmed etc)
•The use of words that qualify statements (e.g. usual, probably etc)
•The use of words that link arguments (e.g. firstly, However, therefore etc)
•The use of compound and complex sentence
•The use of modals and adverbs (e.g. may, must, should, etc)
•The use of subjective opinions using pronouns I and we

Sources:
Cahyono, Kristiawan Dwi and Eka Purnama.2006. Communicative Competence 2B: A course in Acquiring English Communicative Competence, For Senior High School Level, Grade XI Semester 2. Jombang: CV Karunia Agung

Sudarwati and Eudia Grace.2007. Look Ahead: An English Course for Senior High School Students Year XI, Science and Social Study Program. Jakarta: Erlangga

1 komentar:

  • Aswir on May 4, 2013 at 11:20 PM

    Explanation and example given are very clear and useful for teachers, thanks

  • Post a Comment

    Submit Your Site To The Web's Top 50 Search Engines for Free!
    TopOfBlogs Academics blogs @Submit!-FREE Promotion blogarama - the blog directory Blog Directory

    Links

    Followers

    TEXT CATEGORIES