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Learning English text in narrative, news item, descriptive, spoof, hortatory, review, and other types with generic structure and language features

tips for speed readingUnderstanding text means how well we read the text. The concept of reading, shortly can be define as interpreting orally of the language which is written.

There are several kind of text functionally used in our daily activities. The text can be for several purposes; informing, entertaining, technically directing, exposing, instrumenting, debating, narrating, and other purposes. The reading material can vary from book, magazine, news paper, cooking recipes, medicine recept, furniture installation, gadget manual guide, or simply yellow book

There should be slightly different technique when reading such different type of the written language. Practically, the way we read any text or written language is using one or mixed way from several kind of reading techniques. They are can be what we call preview, question, take a not, summarize, review and reflect, scanning skimming and others.

Whatever the technique and strategies we use for reading, remember that we need the the process of reading in very fast way. That's for all, we are going to discus how we can get reading process in very effective and efficient way. In next post series, we will show you how we can practice to read fast. That is SPEED READING TIPS..

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Hortatory text is written to persuade the readers. It is about the matter which the writers believe as the important thing Hortatory exposition will be accomplished with certain recommendation which should or should not be done. Let's see the following example of a hortatory exposition text "The Importance of Speaking English"
English nowadays has an important role in our daily life. It is the massive means of communication. Is there a strong argument which says that English will not give any benefit?
Learning to speak English well may be the best way to improve our life. It seems all the people in the world have agreed to use English to talk to each other. About 1,500,000,000 people in the world speak English. While another 1,000,000,000 are still learning English.
If we can communicate in English, we can contact people from all over the world. We can talk about our ideas and opinions on Internet discussion groups. We can chat with other interesting people to learn about their life and culture.
If we can communicate in English, we can travel more easily. English is spoken in more than 100 countries. If we lost, we can ask directions or ask for help. Who knows, English will save our life  somewhere someday.
That is why we should make every effort possible to find somebody to speak with. Where can we find people who can speak English with us? We can find them at school, shopping mall, tourist destination, etc
Above all, don't be afraid to speak English. We must try to speak, even if we make mistakes. We cannot learn without mistakes. So, speak English as much as possible!

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Narrative texts always teach us some moral value. A narrative text will be constructed in ORIENTATION, COMPLICATION and RESOLUTION. Such plot of narrative story will determine the the story as whole. Let’s see the following example of narrative text!
Once, there was a king of mice. He lived inside a banyan tree in a forest. He loved the tree as his home. He lived there happily.
One day, a poor man wanted to cut down the banyan tree. The king of the mice was frightened so he asked the woodcutter to leave the tree standing. In result, he would give the woodcutter a gold every day. The woodcutter agreed.
Every evening, the king of the mice gave a piece of gold to the woodcutter. The gold was taken out from the roots of the banyan tree. The woodcutter was happy and took the gold home.
After a few days, the woodcutter's wife asked him, “Where does the gold come from?” So he replied, “The king of the mice gives me the golds from under the roots of the tree.” “Oh, you are stupid!” his wife said and suggested. “Why don’t you cut down the tree and take the golds all away?” The woodcutter would do as his wife said.
The following day, the woodcutter cut down the banyan tree. Unfortunately, he did not find any gold there instead the king of the mice had run away and crept up to the woodcutter’s house. The king of the mice took back all the golds.
This example of narrative text is simplified from englishstory12

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Types of Text

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